A History of Modern Europe: From 1815 to the Present by Albert S. Lindemann

By Albert S. Lindemann

"A background of contemporary Europe" surveys eu heritage from the defeat of Napoleon to the twenty-first century, featuring significant ancient subject matters in an authoritative and compelling narrative. Concise, readable unmarried quantity overlaying Europe from the early 19th century during the early twenty-first century lively interpretation of occasions displays a clean, concise standpoint on eu background transparent and thought-provoking remedy of significant old topics energetic narrative displays complexity of recent eu heritage, yet is still obtainable to these strange with the sector.

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Extra resources for A History of Modern Europe: From 1815 to the Present

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George Canning (1770-1827), the Foreign Secretary, promised weapons, ammunition and funds. Other regional emissaries followed and the time had now come to intervene. On 14 June Sir Arthur Wellesley was appointed to command an expeditionary force of 9,500 men. Ironically, these were originally intended for operations against Spain's colonies in South America, to reverse General Whitelocke's complete failure at Buenos Aires of the previous year. As discussed earlier, since 1793 Britain had had mixed success in her amphibious operations on the Continent, with little impact on the overall course of the campaigns fought by her allies.

The narrow streets and alleys were clogged with heaps of dead, fallen in bitter hand-to-hand fighting. It was not long before Napoleon sent the more competent Marshal Auguste Marmont (1774-1852) to succeed Masséna. Wellington's victory was significant, but it was tempered by two less fortunate events later that week. Major-General Sir William Erskine (1769-1813), commanding the force investing Almeida, bungled the operation so badly that on the night of 10/11 May, General Antoine-Francois Brennier (1767-1832) blew up the fortifications and managed to force his way through the blockade with 900 of his 1,300 French troops.

In front of this position the Light Division provided both a screen for the army and intelligence on French movements. These tasks they performed extremely well, and the French were unable to probe Wellington's position to assess his strength or dispositions. 45 Wellington spent much of his time improving his defense, his intelligence network and in reorganization and training. At the same time Beresford continued to improve and expand the Portuguese forces under his command, and in the course of the year he integrated whole Portuguese brigades into most of the all-British/KGL divisions.

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