Aids-Associated Viral Oncogenesis by Charles Wood Ph.D. (auth.), C. Meyers (eds.)
By Charles Wood Ph.D. (auth.), C. Meyers (eds.)
AIDS-associated viral oncology is an important healthcare challenge. because the identity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated got immune sickness syndrome (AIDS), the function of viruses in human cancers has develop into acutely obvious during the last 20 years. the knowledge and remedy of AIDS-associated cancers has turn into an enormous predicament between healthcare organisations. Human cancers that have been as soon as infrequent within the inhabitants have now turn into universal in the HIV contaminated inhabitants.
Experts percentage their collective wisdom and view the scientific and organic elements, together with viruses good validated of their roles, in addition to rising new viruses. This quantity may be a source for either individuals of the clinical and healthcare neighborhood and lively researchers during this field.
"Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - linked got immune illness syndrome (AIDS) locations members at elevated probability for virally mediated cancers. this article addresses the medical and organic facets of this subject. wonderful investigators within the box current a entire assessment with relevance to laboratory scientists and practising clinicians."
Steven T. Rosen, M.D.
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5 cases/1,000 p-y post-HAART (p-value not significant). 86,87 The IPI includes clinical features that reflect the growth and invasive potential of the tumor (tumor stage, serum LDH level, and number of extranodal disease sites), the patient’s response to the tumor (performance status), and the patient’s ability to tolerate Table 3. 5-Year relapse-free and overall survival rates according to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and age-adjusted IPI (adapted from references86)87 Risk group Number of adverse factors* Low Low-intermediate High-intermediate High 0 or 1 2 3 4 or 5 Low Low-intermediate High-intermediate High 0 1 2 3 5-Year relapse survival (%) 5-Year overall survival (%) International prognostic index 70 50 49 40 73 51 43 26 Age-adjusted international prognostic index * 86 66 53 58 83 69 46 32 Adverse risk factors for IPL are: stage III or IV disease, age > 60 years, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and performance status ≥ 2, ≥2 extranodal sites.
185 In the pre-HAART era, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) developed a staging system based on tumor extent (T), CD4 cell count (L), and presence of systemic illness (S). Two different risk categories were noted based on this staging system. A good risk is defined as (T0L0S0) and is seen in disease involving the skin, and/or presence of minimal oral disease, CD4 > 150 µL, no opportunistic infectious (OI)/B symptoms and performance status (PS) > 70. 186 concluded from epidemiological, clinical, staging, and survival data from 211 patients in two Italian prospective cohort studies that in the era of HAART, a refinement of the ACTG staging system is needed.
162,163 Since the discovery of HHV-8, there have been a large number of studies evaluating its underlying role in KS. 165 found that the risk of developing disease increased with HHV-8 antibody titers. 166–169 HHV-8 has been shown to have certain genes to be homologous to cyclin D1 and G-protein coupled receptors, which are known to contribute to oncogenesis. 150,170,171 HIV PATHOGENESIS IN KS The HIV virus itself may be an oncogene in KS development. A regulatory protein of HIV released by infected cells, called the Tat protein, guards KS cells from apoptosis,172 stimulates growth and angiogenesis,173,174 and also increases the production and release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from endothelial and inflammatory cells.