Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski
By Michael Frank Hordeski
Newly revised, the second one version of this pioneering paintings addresses rising components affecting strength creation and use, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels. The textual content presents broad dialogue on hydrogen assets, either sunlight and nuclear, and gasoline cellphone know-how, in addition to different substitute fuels reminiscent of biomass, and wind energy. It delves into price research, regulatory concerns, limitations to implementation, conversion and garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gasoline chain potency, air emission concerns, and defense. The publication additionally covers common fuel hydrogen fuel, methanol, ethanol, and steam reforming.
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Extra resources for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen
Making up over 90% of the universe and 60% of the human body. As the most basic element, it can never be exhausted since it recycles in a relatively short time. If hydrogen was made readily available for electric power generation instead of fossil fuels, electricity costs could be reduced. Hydrogen can be burned in a combustion chamber instead of a conventional boiler, so high-pressure superheated steam can be generated and fed directly into a turbine. This could cut the capital cost of a power plant by one half.
An electric cable terminating in an electrode is lowered in each hole. A potential of 2,000 volts is passed through the coal. The coal seam becomes hot, then white-hot, and ﬁnally begins to gasify. After this electro-carbonization occurs a current of fresh air is sent into one of the boreholes to collect the combustible gas. Underground gasiﬁcation eliminates much of the mining and its operational costs are relatively low. It can be used in seams which are thin or poor in quality. But the method produces no coke.
Light oils and natural gas are low in viscosity while others may be highly viscous (plastic). The viscosity depends on the amount of gas dissolved in it and on the temperature. At ordinary temperatures some crudes are so viscous that they must be heated to be pumped. This makes production and transportation much more expensive. The color of petroleum varies from almost clear to red, green and opaque black. Lighter colors are found in the low speciﬁc gravity crudes. All oils show some degree of ﬂuorescence, especially the aromatic oils.