America's Fighters of the 1980s - F-16 & F-18 by Robert C. Stern
By Robert C. Stern
London released sleek Conflicts - Air
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Extra resources for America's Fighters of the 1980s - F-16 & F-18
On the contrary, porosity may be important in preventing leakage through the wing by helping to press the feathers together. The lifting surface of each wing is composed of numerous separate feather elements, but the wing design of birds means that the degree of relative movement that is possible between the feathers and the skeleton is tightly restricted. The main ﬂight feathers of the wings attach to the bone at the wrist joint and the tips of the wings (Stettenheim 1972). Similarly, on the leading edge of the wing, skin attaches to the bone at the wrist joint and the tips of the wings (Stettenheim 1972), which will help to keep the leading edge covert feathers in their intended position on either the upper or lower surface.
For example, extension or ﬂexion of the arm section of the wing automatically causes extension or ﬂexion of the hand section, by virtue of the parallel sliding arrangement of the radius and ulna (Videler 2005). The same arrangement also means that the wrist has limited freedom of movement when the wing is outstretched. 2 Wing Feathers The lifting surface of a bird’s wing is formed by feathers, which arise from follicles within the skin, and which in the case of the ﬂight feathers are attached by ligaments to the wing bones.
2). Similar structures are found in many insects, including dragonﬂies (Odonata), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and lacewings (Neuroptera). The pterostigma brings the chordwise centre of mass of the wing forward, which reduces torsional ﬂutter (Norberg 1972). The leading edges of the locust and hoverﬂy wings are made of thick supporting veins, with multiple cross-linkages to increase rigidity. 1 Morphology of the fore- and hindwings of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The black spots on the hindwing have been marked artiﬁcially for tracking.